The Zuñi priest used an observation method based on the position of the Sun along the horizon at dawn. By watching the alignment of the shadows of an outcropping on Corn Mountain and a man-made column, he knew when it was time to prepare the fields.
The Hopi priest observed the places on the horizon where the Sun set, and became familiar with the landmarks. He was able to predict quite accurately when the solstices and equinoxes would occur.
The Anasazi observed the summer solstice sunrise at a site near Holly House, Colorado. At this place is a narrow corridor formed from rocks and opening to the eastern sky. Streaks of light coming through there create a display of light and shadows. Using this and a glyph record there, the priest could predict dates quite accurately.