- George Airy (1801-1892)
- Born in England.
- His Transit Circle is still the official reference for longitude zero.
- Through his influence, Greenwich Mean Time became the standard for Britain, and, later, for the world.
- Born in Arabia.
- He integrated Ptolemy’s star catalogue with Arab star tradition and terminology.
- He defined boundaries for the constellations.
- Born in Turkey.
- He drew the best map of Mars of his day and modified the names of the planet’s features.
- He studied Mercury and Venus, but drew some incorrect conclusions about them.
- Born in Greece.
- He was one of the first to maintain that Earth is in motion around the Sun.
- He stated that the Moon shines by reflected light.
- Born in India.
- He made calculations of the sizes of the orbits of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
- He devised a procedure for calculating the magnitudeand the duration of an eclipse.
- He believed that Earth rotates and that Earth and the planets orbit the Sun.
Eugenios Antoniadi (1870-1944)
Aristarchus (ca. 310 BCE – ca. 230 BCE)
Aryabhata of Kusumapura (476-???? CE)