Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the throid gland that functions in the regulation of calcium ions in the blood. Its action is opposite that of parathormone. When the blood calcium level is high, calcitonin is secreted and turns off the release mechanism of calcium from the bones.
Canthaxanthin is a carotenoid similar to beta carotene, but is not converted to Vitamin A in the body.
Carbohydrates are a major class of chemical substances called macronutrients and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1. They form cellulose, fructose, glucose, glycogen, lactose, maltose, starch, and sucrose, making up about one-half of the diet. It is a fundamental source of energy stored in body’s tissues as glycogen. A deficiency of them will produce fatigue, but an overabundance will cause fat accumulation, tooth decay, diabetes, and heart disease. Although, being the most important source of energy, it accounts for less than 3% of the total body weight. Carbohydrates are found mostly in the liver and muscles, but dispatched when needed to all parts of the body.
The three major types of carbohydrates are: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. They are absorbed in the forms of three sugars – glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sources are legumes, whole grains, vegetables, potatoes, fruits, honey, and other sugars.
Such simple carbohydrates as baked potatoes, white bread, or white rice are converted into glucose and pumps this sugar into the bloodstream almost as fast as pure table sugar. High spikes of glucose are followed by similar surges in insulin. As the insulin forces glucose into the fat and muscle cells, the blood sugar plummets, triggering hunger. Worse yet, these repeated surges of sugar and insulin lead to diabetes and heart disease and are significantly responsible for obesity. Almost half of the American population today is considered obese – with Canada striving to catch up. The right kind of fat will generate proper chemical reactions within the body causing weight loss – something that low carbohydrate or high protein-low fat diets are not able to accomplish.
CoEnzyme Q-10 is a lipid-like substance belonging to a group of compounds known as ubiquinones. It is synthesized throughout the body in all living cells, but appears to be concentrated in the mitochondria. It acts as a catalyst in a series of chemical reactions called the respiratory chain that creates energy from carbohydrates. The form that appears to be biologically active has about thirty carbon atom side chains. It is not classified as a vitamin; and no deficiencies have been identified. Levels decrease with age. Low levels have been found in those with heart disease. It has anitoxidant properties and is structurally similar to Vitamins E and K. Testing in Japan revealed that it has been effective in reducing shortness of breath and increasing stamina in CHF (congestive heart failure) patients as well as those with chronic angina. Some studies suggest that it has the potential to protect the myocardium (heart muscle) during open-heart surgery. There is some doubt as to whether it is well-absorbed if large amounts are taken orally.
Creatine is a complex protein derived from acetic acid. It is a nitrogenous compound formed in the liver. It is then converted to phosphocreatine in muscle tissue, where it serves as a source of high energy phosphate for muscle contraction. It is present in the muscles, brain, and blood, with trace amounts in the urine. If it is excreted in abnormally large amounts, it is usually because of conditions that fail to burn carbohydrates in the body. Such conditions include starvation, diabetes mellitus, severe liver disease, such diseases of the muscles as MS and myasthenia gravis, and in such conditions accompanying excessive tissue breakdown as in fevers and wasting diseases. In these disorders, the muscles are unable to accept creatine, and it is excreted. It is the anhydride form, creatinine, that is found in the urine. Changes in kidney function are reflected in creatinine levels. Taking supplements of creatine may depress the body’s ability to produce its own, causing severe problems should the supplementation cease.
Crucifers, or cruciferous vegetables, belong to the mustard family (Cruciferae). These vegetables include: broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, cress, horseradish, kale, kohl rabi, mustard, radishes, rutabaga, and watercress. All contain cancer-fighting indoles. Crucifers were named for their cross-shaped flowers.
Cyclooxygenase – synthetic prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase – is a protein complex that catalyzes two steps in biosynthesis. The cyclooxygenase activity (which is inhibited by aspirin and indomethacin) converts arachidonate and 2O2 to p.G2. The hydoperoxidase activity uses gluthathione to convert p.G2 to p.H2.