Jalapeño (pronounced ha-la-PAY-nyo) is another familiar cultivar that has blunt, almost oval, pods.
Named for the town of Jalapa (actually, Xalapa) in the state of Veracruz in Mexico, it can be very hot.
The large, dried, smoked jalapeños are called chipotles.
These are wrinkled and a warm brown in colour.
Jalapeño is a cone-shaped, chubby, green pepper with a blunt end and about two inches long.
This chile also has sun marks or striations that run lengthwise down the skin, indicating a high quality and heat.
It has a thick meaty flesh that is usually medium hot, but can vary considerably.
The jalapeno is considered the official hot pepper of the United States, but over 90% of them are imported from Mexico.
Archeologists have found remnants of the pepper along well-established trade routes that linked New Mexico and central Mexico thousands of years ago, and the jalapeño pepper we have today seems to be the same kind.
A recent development is the Tam,
a milder jalepeño developed for spicy flavour with reduced hotness.
Serranos can be substituted for fresh jalepaños.