Female hormone – gland secreted – target organ – effects
- Estrogen – ovary (follicle) – ovary and endometrium and other tissues and organs – stimulates maturation of the ovarian follice and the proliferative phase of endometrial development and causes the development of the secondary sex characteristics.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – anterior pituitary – ovary – initiates development of the ovarian follice and the secretion of estrogen by the follicular cells
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) – hypothalamus – anterior pituitary – stimulates the secretion of the gonadotropins FSH and LH
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) – trophoblast cells of the embryo – corpus luteum – maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) – anterior pituitary – ovary – causes ovulation and stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone
- Progesterone – corpus luteum (ovary) – endometrium (uterus) – stimulates the secretory phase of endometrial development
Hormones of ovulation: After ovulation has occurred, the remaining follicular cells develop into a glandular structure called the corpus luteum, which secretes two hormones:
- large amounts of progesterone, (a progestin) which targets the uterus and mammary glands. This prepares the uterus for implantation, as well as the mammary glands for secretory functions.
- smaller amounts of estrogenEstrogen and progesterone
- control menstrual cycle and fertility
- gives soft skin and breasts
- provides protection from heart disease
- prepares body for pregnancy
- facilitates birth
Although many women will disagree, another hormone called relaxin, aids in birthing process.
Follicular cells also secrete a hormone called inhibin that targets the anterior pituitary to prevent the secretion of FSH, thereby regulating the formation of egg production. If fertilization does not take place, the corpus luteum deteriorates and dies within ten days to become known as the corpus albicans, which is not able to secrete hormones.
Hormones of Pregnancy – hormone – secreted by – effects
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) – embryonic cells (trophoblasts) during implantation – maintains the function of the corpus luteum and forms the basis of the pregnancy test
- Estrogen and progesterone – corpus luteum during first two months then placenta thereafter – both hormones stimulate the uterine development and mammary glands. Progesterone inhibits uterine contractions during pregnancy, and estrogen relaxes the pelvic joints. When labor begins, estrogen opposes the quietening effects of progesterone and sensitizes the myometrium to oxytocin.
- Oxytocin – posterior pituitary gland – causes uterine contractions and, later, the release of milk.
- Prolactin – anterior pituitary gland – stimulates the breast to secrete milk
- Prostaglandins – placenta – stimulate uterine contractions